NRC WASH Project Evaluation Job

Terms of Reference

NRC KENYA – Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Evaluation

DURATION: July – August 2021

based: KAKUMA, Turkana County, Kenya

1 Background information

1.1 Background on the context

The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is an independent, humanitarian non-governmental organization which provides assistance, protection and durable solutions to refugees and internally-displaced persons in Kenya.

· Our Vision: Rights Respected, People Protected

· Our Core Values: Accountability, Dedication, Inclusiveness, Innovation.

· Overall Strategic Objective for Kenya: NRC will meet the immediate and longer-term needs of displacement affected people focussing on both humanitarian needs and developmental requirements.

2. Context

Kenya hosted approximately 515,000 refugees in the camps of Dadaab and Kakuma and in urban settings, mainly Nairobi as per Registered refugees and asylum-seekers as of 31st March 2021. The refugees are from over nine countries of the Horn and Great Lakes regions, but the overwhelming majority are from Somalia (275,000) and South Sudan (129,000) many of whom have been in Kenya since the early 1990s. Civil war, insecurity, drought and dire humanitarian situation engendered by the collapse of the Somali state and fighting in South Sudan has led to need for provision of humanitarian assistance. There has been Kenya government pronouncements and pressure to close Dadaab and Kakuma refugee camps in 2021 alleging high burden of sheltering refugees and insecurity concerns. NRC has been operating in Kakuma since 2012 and is currently implementing WASH, Education, LFS, and ICLA activities in the refugee and neighbouring host communities in Turkana West. There are approximately 209,000 refugees in Kakuma camp and Kalobeyei settlement Turkana County who rely on NRC, PWJ and other partners for provision of WASH services. NRC has been the lead implementing partner (of UNHCR) in WASH since 2015, with funding received from ECHO since 2016. In 2021, NRC is the UNHCR lead partner for Water supply and Peace Wind Japan (PWJ) for Hygiene and Sanitation.

NRC has partnered with PWJ to ensure a coordinated response to the WASH situation in Kakuma refugee camp. Drawing from the over 6 years’ experience of NRC in implementing WASH, NRC and PWJ have developed a 5-year strategic plan the envisions to systematically but cautiously handing over some of the WASH services to the local actors in line with KISEDP, CIDP and CRRF.

The objective of the NRC WASH programme:

People affected by displacement have improved public health status that responds to long term development ambitions and durable solutions.

1.2 NRC’s activities and presence

NRC has been operational in Kenya since 2007. NRC Kenya programme has field offices in Dadaab and Kakuma. NRC has expertise in Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Livelihood & Food Security (LFS), Education and Information Counselling & Legal Assistance (ICLA).

1.3 NRC’s intervention specific to the evaluation

The WASH programme is funded by UNHCR since 2015 and by ECHO since 2016. NRC also received funds from other donors including Water Sector Trust fund, SIDA, NMFA and other to finance WASH Services. This is aimed at contributing to enhanced access to WASH services and protection for vulnerable refugees and host communities in Kakuma, Kenya.

2 Purpose of the evaluation and intended use

2.1 Overarching purpose

The overall objective is to fill knowledge gaps regarding the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, integration and impact of WASH Programming since 2020. These is critical to inform future NRC Kenya WASH programming on the quality of water supply, sanitation and Hygiene initiatives for displacement affected populations.

2.2 How will the evaluation be used?

In the context of the protracted and dynamic situation in Kenya and intervention by NRC in provision of WASH services to displacement affected population, Kenya programme seeks to understand better its WASH program to provide direction for quality WASH integrated programming. The Evaluation will also be used for donor accountability especially for reporting to ECHO.

2.3 Who will it be used by?

The users of the evaluation will be;

· NRC programme staff at country and Kakuma office responsible for WASH programmes.

· Donors – ECHO, UNHCR

· WASH partners particularly Peace Winds Japan (PWJ) among other NGOs

· Turkana County government.

3 Scope and lines of inquiry

3.1 Scope:

The evaluation is expected to be completed within a maximum period of 45 days (September to October 2021) from the date of signing of the contract with the successful bidder. The geographic location for the evaluation will cover Kakuma refugee camp, Kalobeyei settlement and surrounding host community areas, Turkana County, Kenya. The external evaluation will cover the Water Sanitation, supply and hygiene services provided by NRC since 2019 and funded by ECHO, UNHCR and other donors.

3.2 Lines of inquiry

3.2.1 Relevance/ Impact (To assess the relevance and impact of WASH programme for displacement affected populations.

· How relevant were the objectives and activities, implemented by the programme in addressing WASH needs in Kakuma?

· How do beneficiaries perceive the relevance of the programme and how has the activities implemented improved their lives? Are all areas in the camp receiving adequate WASH services as per accepted international standards? Are there any stories of change?
· How has the collaboration between NRC, WASH Partners, county government and donors contributed to appropriate response of specific needs and priorities of the beneficiaries?

· To what extent the WASH programme was able to adapt and provide appropriate response to context changes and emerging local needs, and the priorities of beneficiaries?

· Are we innovating, improving, monitoring properly our interventions? What appropriate innovations to embrace in future programming?

· To assess impact of WASH programme for displacement affected population. What positive change and real tangible benefits have been realised by the beneficiaries as a result of the programme interventions? Is there any evidence of negative impact with regard to any aspect of the programme?

3.2.2 Efficiency

· To examine the efficiency of WASH programme – Is the programme being implemented in such a way as to give good value for the money spent to achieve the desired standards and outcome? Is the service delivery approach making the most efficient use of resources?

· Does the WASH programme have the required resources (financial, HR, skills, support systems) to achieve our ambition?

· Was the programme implementation (modality) considered to have been cost-efficient, while not compromising quality?

3.2.3 Cross cutting issues:

· Have important cross cutting issues such as protection, accountability, durable solutions and gender all been considered in the design and implementation of the programme and has NRC achieved any results? What is NRC contribution to durable solutions? To what extent were the WASH programme interventions contributed to build long term community capacity? What is the level of beneficiary satisfaction with NRC programme? What other organizations were working in similar project activities, were they successfully coordinated and were there any overlaps that could have been avoided?

· To assess what worked well and what could be done differently to produce desired results.

3.2.4 Integration

· To what extend the WASH programmes synergize with other programmes within NRC and other partners to achieve a common objective that People affected by displacement have improved public health status, environmental and living conditions?

· To identify challenges and opportunities to assist in restructuring WASH programming in Kakuma.

4 Methodology

The methodology will be a mixed-methods approach including both qualitative and quantitative components. The data collection methodologies should use a participatory approach engaging all relevant stakeholders, including community leaders, government counterparts and NRC and or staff. The consultant is expected to review the methodology while taking into account the government of Kenya and UNHCR COVID – 19 protocols.

· Desk review of background documents (project document, project monitoring data, progress report, field visit reports etc.)

· Key informant interviews (e.g., with NRC, PWJ staff members, UNHCR, NGOs, key community members and representatives from the county government, embassy) to gather evidence on the relevance impact, efficiency of the project activities implementation and delivery.

· Focus group discussions with target groups to assess implementation experiences and effectiveness, document success, challenges and lessons learned, and develop recommendations for improvement.**

· Survey – Application of structured survey questionnaires with a representative, random sample of target population to quantitatively assess outcomes.**

· Direct observation **

· Project staff interviews on project overall implementation.

5 Evaluation follow up and learning

The findings will be used to;

Provide meaningful feedback about progress of the NRC WASH programme, to provide honest feedback – positive and negative for improvement. A management response will be developed before learning event after the evaluation report is finalised. This will be followed up and tracked by the M&E Manager. A dissemination plan will be developed to ensure that important learning is shared with internal and external stakeholders and incorporated in implementation of current WASH and future programmes. The evaluation results will be used to review WASH Theory of change.

6 Management of the evaluation

The person responsible for ensuring that this evaluation/ review takes place is the Integrated Programme Manager in Kakuma. An evaluation manager has been appointed to internally coordinate the process and will be the evaluation team’s main focal point.

An evaluation Steering Committee (SC) will be established by NRC, with the following members:

· Steering Committee chair: Head of Programmes

· Evaluation manager: M&E Manager

· Steering committee members: NRC Area Manager, Integrated Programme Manager, and PWJ WASH Manager?

The Steering Committee will oversee administration and overall coordination, including monitoring progress. The main functions of the Steering committee will be:

· Establish the Terms of Reference of the evaluation;

· Select evaluator(s);

· Review and comment on the inception report and approve the proposed evaluation strategy;

· Review and comment on the draft evaluation report;

· Establish dissemination and utilization strategy.

· Sharing of the relevant literature and data, as well as NRC’s policies;

· Introduction of the consultant to NRC key stakeholders and other important key informants;

· Assist in meeting arrangements with stakeholders, key informants, and beneficiaries, if requested by the consultant;

· Support of selection of data collectors, translators, facilitators, note takers, if requested by the consultant;

· Support in organising transport, internal flights and accommodation at NRC compound;

· Security debriefing.

7 Deliverables and reporting deadlines

The agreed timeframe is 45 days in July to August 2021.


An inception report, which will serve as an agreement between parties on how the evaluation will be conducted.

o Understanding of the issues and questions raised in the ToR

o Data sources; how to assess the questions in the ToR

o Research methodology, including suggested sample and size

o Schedule of activities and traveling (timeline) while taking into account the government of Kenya and UNHCR COVID –19 protocols. Schedule of activities and time line to be provided in case the evaluation is to be done virtually.

o Proposal for a learning event/validation of evaluation findings.

o Detailed budget.

o Appropriate validated draft data collection tools (e.g., methodological guidelines, group interview questions). The tools and methodology will be verified by NRC.

o Statistical packages to be used and data protection.

Evaluation Reports

o A max 35-page draft and final evaluation report (in MS Office and PDF for final), excluding annexes and in English.

o Both reports should be in the format indicated below, to be submitted to NRC Kenya Country office. It is preferable to illustrate the results by appropriate graphs, visuals, tables and/or a dashboard with an accompanied explanatory text. The report should consist of:

a. Executive Summary in bullets (max. 2 pages)

b. Introduction

c. Methodology, including sampling and limitations

d. Analysis and findings of the evaluation. The analysis should be done according to the evaluation lines of enquiry.

e. Address concerns, lessons learned and comments partners.

f. Stories of change and quotes from respondents

g. Conclusions for each of the evaluation objectives

h. Recommendations for adjustment in program set-up within the remaining implementation period and for future projects. Include an implementation strategy for the recommendations


o Relevant maps and photographs of the evaluation areas where necessary

o Bibliography of consulted secondary sources

o Finalized data collection tools and analysed tables and graphs

o List of interviewees with accompanying informed consent forms

o PowerPoint presentation of preliminary findings

Lessons learning event

o Learning event for project stakeholders, partners. The structure and activities of the learning and evaluation meeting(event) will be agreed with NRC.

8. Timeframe

July – August 2021

Tools development phase

Deliverable 1: final inception report including budget, methodology and qualitative research tools, approved by NRC steering committee.


Data collection phase

Briefings, desk review, survey, FGDs, direct observation, interviews and field visits Kakuma. COVID – 19 protocols to be observed

10 Days

Data analysis and validation and learning workshop phase

Analysis and Presentation of initial findings and draft of the report.

5 Days

Evaluation report phase

Draft Evaluation Report, for comment by (steering committee)

10 Days

Deliverable 2: Learning event- Final report presentation

3 Days

Deliverable 3: Final Evaluation Report

70% – 2 Days

Final report deadline 31st August 2021

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