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The Evaluation of the IGAD-FAO Partnership Programme on Building Resilience for (Agro-) Pastoralist Communities.

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Title: The Evaluation of the IGAD-FAO Partnership Programme on Building Resilience for (Agro-) Pastoralist Communities.

Organization: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) in Kenya

Duration: Between August and October 2020[1].

Number of days: 30 days maximum.

Contract Type: Consultancy

Closing date: 24 July 2020

1. Purpose

This Terms of Reference (ToR) provides the framework for the evaluation of the IGAD FAO Partnership Programme on Building Resilience for (Agro-) Pastoralist Communities. IGAD/FAO Partnership Programme (PP) is a long-term initiative that aims to contribute to the implementation of the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI) Strategy by enhancing resilience to drought resulting in improved food and nutrition security for communities and households in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) supported the IGAD-FAO PP since June 2014 with an inception phase followed by a first phase of five years starting in January 2016 until December 2020 with a budget of USD 10 Million. The programme is implemented in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia with a particular focus on the IGAD cluster III cross-border areas (Mandera cluster).

The purpose of the evaluation is to assess specific aspects of the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability and lessons learnt of the IGAD-FAO PP in achieving its objectives. The evaluation will include gender, transversal good governance and conflict sensitivity dimensions in the programme delivery and is expected to generate learning and recommendations for SDC and the relevant stakeholders. The evaluation should also inform the possibility of a next phase of the programme, and areas for enhanced synergies with other programmes in food security domain of the Swiss Regional Cooperation Programme for the Horn of Africa.

2. Context:

The Horn of Africa (HoA) Countries of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia is one of the most food-insecure regions in the world. The pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities in the region are increasingly vulnerable to growing pressures on natural resources, which they depend for survival, with increasing climate variability resulting in frequent droughts. Despite these challenges, the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) in the countries of the HoA remain one of the regions with the biggest depository of livestock in Africa and an export hub to the Middle East. Every year, an average of two to five million livestock heads are exported to Gulf countries from HoA and contribute respectively 16%, 20% and 60% to Kenya’s, Ethiopia’s and Somalia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Addressing these challenges requires mechanisms and policies that reduce communities’ exposure to these risks. Building the capacities of the (agro-) pastoralists in the region will ensure long-term sustainability to cope with future disasters. The 2011 crisis and famine in the HoA and sub-sequent droughts called for a long-term strategy going beyond the predominantly humanitarian assistance approach of previous years. Accordingly, the Heads of State of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) provides a policy directive and commitment to end drought emergencies, i.e. the “IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI)”. The IDDRSI strategy aims at addressing the effects of drought and related shocks in the IGAD region[2] in a sustainable and holistic manner.

3. IGAD FAO Partnership Programme on Building Resilience for (Agro-) Pastoralist Communities

IGAD-FAO Partnership Programme (PP) contributes to the resilience of vulnerable communities in cross-border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia (IGAD cluster III – Mandera Triangle) by responding to the priorities set out by IGAD countries and their partners. The partnership programme is designed to bring communities at the center of cross-border policy and investment discourse and actions; not only as beneficiaries but as key stakeholders defining the agenda of their future. It builds on experiences and comparative advantages (such as high legitimacy, technical expertise and political acceptance) from IGAD, FAO, IGAD Member States and other development partners in addressing the vulnerability of communities, particularly those living in cross-border areas. The Mandera cross-border areas are affected by conflicts and are difficult to access.

The current phase of the programme focuses on natural resources management, trade and marketing, and transboundary animal diseases, reflecting on gender sensitive and cross-border conflict resolution programming and addressing a number of challenges and issues identified in the IDDRSI strategy.

The overall objective of the programme is to enhance resilience to drought, resulting in improved food and nutrition security for cross-border communities and households in the ASALs. The following outcomes will contribute to achieving the overall objective:

· Cross-border communities have enhanced trade opportunities, improved access and control over natural resources, and increased productive capacity. The programme assists communities to develop cross-border community development plans, strengthens their capacity to deliver these plans and provides funding to implement community initiatives.

· Regional resilience-related policy gaps and priorities are identified and addressed. The programme partners with Member States in identifying, analyzing and prioritizing policy gaps and opportunities, as well as reformulating, developing and addressing regional thematic policies and emerging priority gaps.

· Access to evidence-based analysis and information leads to improved regional and cross-border development investment decisions. It supports the production and availability of quality information on Food Security, Climate Change and Resilience for a wider stakeholder group as well as document and disseminate lessons learnt and good practices in cross-border areas.

· IGAD’s specialized institutions[3] are able to more effectively deliver their mandate. The programme aimed to improve the capacity of IGAD Centre for Pastoral and Livestock Development (ICPALD), and IGAD Climate Predictions and Applications Centre (ICPAC) on cross-border drought and climate variability monitoring and technologies and enhance the capacity of Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN) on cross border conflict analysis and in developing mitigating measures with communities.

4. Objectives and scope of the evaluation

SDC intends to launch an external evaluation of the IGAD-FAO partnership programme as it is in its final year of implementation of the first phase. The evaluation will assess relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, and identify and document lessons learned, best practices, gaps and recommendations. In view of consolidating the Swiss food security portfolio, a focus will also be put on synergies between the IGAD-FAO PP with other projects funded by Switzerland and other donors in the sector.

5. Guiding questions

The following non-exhaustive key tasks/questions should be addressed:


  1. How relevant are the programme objectives to enhance resilience to drought resulting in improved food and nutrition security for cross-border communities and households in the ASALs for social groups such as women, men, minorities, vulnerable groups etc.?

  2. To what extent is the programme aligned with the IDDRSI strategy and other necessary regional resilience programmes, donors and relevant stakeholder priorities?

  3. To what extent is the programme design responsive to achieve the programme objectives? Is the role of the Member States evident in the delivery of the programme through the different levels of engagement – community, local authority, regional and national levels? How is the regional approach being implemented across the three members states and is the value to such approach?

  4. To what extent is the IGAD-FAO PP relevant in terms of a multi-level approach, contributing to institutional strengthening of IGAD on the one hand and enhancing local ownership for resilience on the other hand?

Effectiveness: Evaluate the extent to which the programme is delivering on the outcomes expected to achieve the objectives;

  1. To what extent have cross-border communities’ enhanced their trade opportunities, improved access to natural resources and increased their productive capacity?

  2. To what extent are the relevant drylands policy priorities and strategic frameworks strengthened to address the identified gaps for enhanced community resilience to droughts and to disaster risk reduction?

  3. To what extent have evidence-based analysis resulted in improved resilience investment decisions?

  4. To what extent did the program contribute to improving the capacity of IGAD’s specialized institutions to deliver their mandate? A review of the extent the recommendations of the capacity checks translate into actions.

  5. To what extend did IGAD-FAO PP’s multi-level approach contribute to an enhanced harmonization and interaction between local, national and regional level? In how far did interlinkages between the different levels materialize in enhanced articulation between operational and policy levels and in improved living conditions for the populations in therm of trade opportunities, access and control over natural resources, and productive capacity?


  1. How efficient were the resources utilized based on the project results/outputs, taking into consideration the project implementation timelines (time efficiency)?

  2. Were the coordination mechanisms and leadership in programme implementation fit for purpose to achieve timely programme results? How efficient was the partnership between IGAD and FAO in the programme implementation?

  3. Based on the risks identified during the planning and implementation period, how did the programme mitigate these risks to achieve the programme objectives?

  4. In how far did the IGAD-FAP PP use synergies and complementarities with other projects supporting IGAD funded by Switzerland[4] and other donors?


  1. To what extent has local ownership been established? Are the communities’ capacities improvement (informed decision-making, development and implementation of investment plans) resulting in enhanced ownership and attitude change to resilience building?

  2. To what extent is the knowledge, information and experiences documented and shared during the programme implementation at the local, regional and national levels to influence future resilience programming?

  3. What are potential synergies with other projects in the food security sector funded by Switzerland[5] and other donors, how have the synergies been used so far and how can they results in enhanced coordination and programmatic approaches?

Gender, good governance, diversity and conflict sensitivity

  1. To what extent was the programme implemented in a conflict-sensitive manner and has it contributed to reduction of conflicts?

  2. How has the program contributed to women participation and empowerment (decision-making, livelihood support and access to investments) and transformation of gender relations?

  3. How has the program contributed enhanced social accountability, participation, non-discrimination, and the respect of other good governance principles?

  4. Has the programme promoted the do-no-harm principles and inclusion of IDPs and minority groups?

Lessons Learned and Recommendations

What lessons can be learned from the programme thus far in regard to its relevance, coherence, effectiveness, impact, efficiency and sustainability, gender equity, transversal good governance and conflict sensitivity and ways of bringing about positive change at the normative, institutional and operational levels?

  1. What are the recommendations for future engagements/subsequent phases looking at the programme focus, design, partnerships, implementing partners, etc.?

  2. What aspects of the programme could be integrated in other ongoing programmes of the Swiss food security portfolio?

6. Suggested Methodology

The evaluation will be conducted in close collaboration with relevant stakeholders (Swiss Cooperation Office in Nairobi and Addis Ababa, IGAD ICPALD, FAO, Focal points for the Member States – both IDDRSI Coordinators and Project focal points, Implementing Agencies and community groups etc.). SDC will directly manage and oversee the evaluation process.

The evaluation methodology will be guided by the objectives and the scope of the evaluation while exhaustively addressing the key evaluation questions. The evaluation is expected to provide quantitative and qualitative data through:

• Desk study/review of all relevant project documentation including e.g. programme documents, work-plans, programme reports (including progress, annual, baseline reports), minutes of programme steering and grant committees, among others.

• In depth interviews[6] to gather primary data from key stakeholders using a structured methodology.

• Focus Group discussions with programme stakeholders including beneficiaries.

• Interviews with relevant key informants.

• Observations (field visits using checklist to be developed by the consultants in collaboration with SDC).

A detailed method of evaluation should be outlined in the evaluation inception report before any field missions are carried out.

7. Deliverables

The following products are expected from the evaluation:

  1. An adjusted evaluation approach paper and a work plan (inception report) to be developed by the evaluation team, approved by SDC and a briefing session held before the start of the evaluation mission. The inception report should describe key stages of the review process, provide timeline and establish clear roles and responsibilities in the review process.

  2. An evaluation report (max. 25 pages, excl. the executive summary and annexes) with an analytical review and recommendation part. The report should take the guiding questions and respond to the evaluation guidelines.

  3. Presentation of the outcome of the evaluation before the final reports are produced.

  4. Presentation to programme key partners (to be agreed upon).

8. Review Team

For the evaluation, a team comprised of an expert with international experience and local expert(s) is preferred. The rational and the strength of the composition of the evaluation team should be clarified in the application proposal.

The international expert is expected to have robust skills in evaluation methodologies and professional experience in conducting project and process evaluations, including in complex settings with a multitude of stakeholders and in fragile contexts. Additionally, the international expert needs theoretical and practical knowledge of food security, natural resources management, livelihoods and resilience, gender and conflict sensitivity thematic topics. Familiarity with the regional cross-border programming and proven experience in fragile, conflict-affected contexts in the Horn of Africa region is an advantage.

The local experts should have understanding of local community contexts and able to work in IGAD cluster III cross-border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.

Strong analytical capacity combined with ability to synthesize/communicate findings and recommendations and report-writing skills are required.

9. Time Frame, Budget and Logistics

The maximum time frame for this evaluation by the consultant(s) is 30 working days. The allocation of working days to inception, desk review, field visits, etc. will be agreed on the basis of the inception report.

The study is scheduled to take place between August and September 2020 along the following deliverables:

Timeframe (2020)


July 10 – 25

· Announcement (with the deadline submission June 30 )

July 25 – 5 August

· Recruitment of consultants and Contractual processes.

August 5 – 15

· Submit inception report (in English) with detailed work-plan with timeframe outlining the activities/steps to be undertaken during the consultancy.

· Develop the evaluation methodology and tools for field work, including key informant interviews, focus group discussion etc. and identify people to be interviewed.

August 17 – 21

· Conduct the desk review.

· Exchange and briefing session with SDC.

August 21 – September 18

· Carry out programme evaluation both at Nairobi level (exchange with partners and relevant stakeholders) and field mission (cross-border programme implementation areas of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia).

September 21 – October 2

· Elaboration and delivery of draft evaluation report in English to SDC for review and feedback.

October 5 – 16

· SDC to provide feedback on the draft report

October 19 – 23

· Consultant to deliver the final evaluation report to SDC Integrating all comments and feedbacks.

· Workshop to share the result of the assessment (tbc) and discuss on how the assessment can be translated to concrete actions/next steps.

10. Award criteria

Of the valid offers submitted, the contract will be awarded to the most highly rated bid. Offers will be assessed according to the following award criteria and weighting:

Award criteria


Proven knowledge and experience in food security, natural resources management, livelihoods and resilience thematic topics. 30%

Experience in developing and implementing quantitative and qualitative research protocols, including research methods, sampling, data analysis, and experience with reviews and assessments, particularly in Horn of Africa context. 30%

Financial offer/Cost of consultancy service offered. 30%

Proven knowledge of the social and political context of the Horn of Africa. 10%

[1] Duration will be dependent on the Covid-19 situation assessment and restrictions.

[2] The IDDRSI strategy covers the IGAD region which comprises the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda (https://igad.int/)

[3] IGAD Specialized institutes include IGAD Centre for Pastoral and Livestock Development (ICPALD), IGAD Sheikh Technical Veterinary School (ISTVS), IGAD Climate Predictions and Applications Centre (ICPAC), Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN), IGAD Center of Excellence in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and IGAD Land Governance Unit.

[4] Switzerland – IGAD Strategic Partnership Programmes include Building River Dialogue & Governance (BRIDGE), IGAD Land Governance Programme 2019-2023, Building Capacities for Migration Governance in IGAD Region, IGAD Institutional Strengthening Action Programme (ISAP).

[5] Ongoing Switzerland supported food security programmes in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia include: Somalia Resilience Programme (SomReP), Somalia Information and Resilience Building Action (FAO-SIRA), Natural Resources Management Programme Borena in Ethiopia, Strengthening Drought Resilience in Somali Region of Ethiopia (SDR-SR), Strengthening Livestock Sector in Arid and Semi-Arid Counties of Northern Kenya (LSS), and Kenya Resilient Arid Lands Partnerships for Integrated Development (Kenya RAPID) in Northern Kenya.

[6] The field visits and face-to-face interviews will be dependent on how the Covid-19 pandemic situation evolves.

How to apply

Consultants invited to apply will provide a full application pack, and send it to the following e-mail address: [email protected] and specifically headed “SDC IGAD-FAO PP Evaluation”:

The technical proposal in English (10 to 15 pages maximum) should include:

· Understanding of the Terms of Reference

· Technical approach developed and detailed methodology with approach and workplan.

· Composition of the evaluation team with clear division of responsibilities between its members, CVs submitted with indication of the availability of consultants.

· Provisional timetable for the evaluation.

· A detailed budget proposal/financial offer.

· References from two similar previous assignments.

· A sworn statement as to the absence of any conflict of interest.

The financial proposal should include: Total budget including all taxes and incorporating a budget break-down (fees, living expenses, travel, etc.).

Compliance with local law on taxation – Taxes, charges and social security contributions will be applicable in conformity with local legislation. The Embassy is obligated to deduct and submit Withholding Tax (WHT) to the Kenyan Revenue Authority (KRA). WHT is a percentage of the earnings and will vary depending on the country of origin of the consultant.

· For non-residents, the Embassy will respect existing “double taxation agreements (DTA)”. It is the consultant’s duty to provide proof of tax payment in the residing country. If no proof is available the full percentage, currently at 20% (subject to change depending on legislation) for non-resident, will be deducted.

· More information on the applicable tax rates can be found here https://www.kra.go.ke/en/helping-tax-payers/faqs/more-about-withholding-tax.

· Legal status of the consultant in the country of engagement: The consultant must have valid a work permit or equivalent authorizations before travelling, that allows such a person to live and work in the respective country.

Final date for submission of applications: Friday 24th July 2020, 17.00 hrs local time, Nairobi.

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